Safe food fortification
Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies (in developing countries) to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. In the EU, addition of vitamins and minerals falls under Regulation (EU) 1925/2006.
Insight into population micronutrient intakes and evaluation of too low or too high intakes is required to see whether there are potential problems regarding inadequacy or excessive intakes. Too low population intakes are evaluated against an estimated average requirement; potential too high population intakes are evaluated against a tolerable upper intake level.
Risk-benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes.
Furthermore, authorities can regulate food fortification and supplementation in such a way that most of the population is not at risk of potentially high intakes. Policy makers and risk managers need to decide how to divide between food fortification and/or dietary supplements, while protecting populations from adverse health effects.
Detailed information can be found:
- EU, Addition of vitamins and minerals
What do I offer
- Holistic concepts in food safety and nutrition.
- Risk-benefit considerations for food fortification and public health.
- Health and nutrition claims for vitamins, minerals and fortified foods.
- Framing and designing of food-fortification projects, problem formulation.
- Execution of safe food fortification assessments, publication and presentation of results.
- Collaboration in (EU) projects as an SME.
Expertise with the topic
- (Co-)author of publications on food fortification with vitamins, minerals and other substances.
- Expert on scientific substantiation of health claims.
- Expert on risk-benefit considerations for food fortification and public health.
Some key publications in the area
- Kloosterman J, Fransen HP, de Stoppelaar J, Verhagen H, Rompelberg C. (2007). Safe addition of vitamins and minerals to foods: setting maximum levels for fortification in the Netherlands. Eur. J. Nutrition. 46: 220-229.
- Hoekstra J., Verkaik-Kloosterman J., Rompelberg C., van Kranen H., Zeilmaker M., Verhagen H, de Jong (2008). Integrated risk–benefit analyses: Method development with folic acid as example. Food Chem. Tox. 46: 893-909.bis
- Fransen H.P., Sylvia M.G.J. Pelgrom S.M.G.J., Stewart-Knox B., de Kaste D. and Verhagen H. (2010). Assessment of health claims, content, and safety of herbal supplements containing Ginkgo biloba. Food & Nutrition Research 2010. 54: 5221 - DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v54i0.5221
- Verkaik-Kloosterman J., McCann M.T., Hoekstra J. and Verhagen H. (2012). Vitamins and minerals: issues associated with too low and too high population intakes. Food & Nutrition Research 56: 5728 - DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v56i0.5728, http://www.foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/5728
- Verkaik-Kloosterman J., Beukers M., Buurma-Rethans E., Verhagen H., Ocké M.C. (2012) Evaluation of the Dutch general exemption level for voluntary fortification with folic acid. Food & Nutrition Research. 56: 5443
- Bruins MJ., Mugambi G., Verkaik-Kloosterman J., Hoekstra J., Kraemer K., Osendarp S., Melse A., Gallagher A.M., and Verhagen H. (2014). Addressing micronutrient deficiencies: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods. Food & Nutrition Research 2015, 59: 26020.
- Bielderman I., Bruins M.J., Engle-Stone R., Solomons N.W., Verhagen H., Allen L.H., Neufeld L.M., Kraemer K., Badham J. (2015). Symposium Report: Effective and Safe Micronutrient Interventions, Weighing the Risks Against the Benefits. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety 5(4): 202-228.